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REVIEWS

LakiBeam 1 ToF LiDAR Review

DFRobot May 30 2023 1660
Core parameters of LakiBeam 1 ToF LiDAR

In recent years, due to demand, the popularity of single-line lidar has been high, and enterprises and products in this field have been emerging. However, due to various factors such as technology and raw materials, cost-effective industrial-grade single-line lidar is still scarce. 

DF has recently launched a single-line lidar that claims to be the king of cost-effective 2D industrial lidar. Today, we have received this lidar and will provide a comprehensive review in three sections in this article.

 

Purpose of the Test

In order to better evaluate the performance and functional requirements of the LiDAR, we have chosen to conduct a unified test on the parameters and performance of the LiDAR. Finally, we will conduct a mapping test to provide everyone with an understanding of the actual performance of this LiDAR.

1. LiDAR parameters: distance, angle, point cloud.

2. LiDAR performance: detection of various objects, noise, lighting environment, power consumption, aging tests.

3. Mapping.

 

Test equipment and environment

1. Equipment name and model

The following equipment will be used for the test:

  • Tape measure
  • Laptop
  • Power adapter
  • Power strip
  • Lux meter
  • Decibel meter
  • Spotlight
  • Aluminum frame​ 
LakiBeam 1 ToF LiDAR Test equipment and environment

 

2. Equipment manufacturers

The relevant equipment models and manufacturers are as follows:

 

3. Testing environment

Indoor scene 

LakiBeam 1 ToF LiDAR Indoor scene
LakiBeam 1 ToF LiDAR Indoor scene


 
Outdoor scene

LakiBeam 1 ToF LiDAR Outdoor scene

 

Item 1: Radar parameter testing

Distance Testing

 

Purpose:

Distance is an essential parameter for LiDAR, indicating the scanning radius of the radar and helping us determine the detection range.

Specification:
≥25m @ 70% reflectivity
≥15m @ 10% reflectivity
Accuracy: ±2cm     
 

Method:

Under the given environment reflectivity, record the return parameters of the LiDAR and compare them with the measured distance to determine whether the detection range and accuracy of the radar meet the product specifications.

 

Process:

1.Indoor short-range test

Place the LiDAR in a fixed position and place a white obstacle 1m away.

LakiBeam 1 ToF LiDAR Indoor short-range test

 

Turn on the computer host and record the relevant data. Sampling time: 5 minutes.

Indoor short-range test

 

Place the LiDAR in a fixed position and place a black obstacle 0.5m away.

LakiBeam 1 ToF LiDAR Indoor short-range test

 

Turn on the computer host and record the relevant data. Sampling time: 5 minutes.

LakiBeam 1 ToF LiDAR Indoor short-range test

 

2.Indoor long-range test

Place the LiDAR in a fixed position and measure the white wall 10.5m away.

LakiBeam 1 ToF LiDAR

Turn on the computer host and record the relevant data.

LakiBeam 1 ToF LiDAR

 

3.Outdoor environment

Place the LiDAR at a distance of 12 meters from the object being measured.   

     
 

Turn on the computer host and record the relevant data.

 

Result:

The error for white objects (reflectivity ≥90%) indoors and outdoors is basically within ±3cm, and the error for 25 meters in strong outdoor light is within ±5.5cm, with a resolution of 1mm, which basically meets the standard. 

LakiBeam 1 ToF LiDAR

Angle Testing

Purpose:

Angle is an essential parameter for LiDAR, indicating the scanning range of the radar and helping us determine the direction and position of the target. (Specification: 270°)

 

Method:

Test the angle range and angle resolution of the LiDAR in an enclosed space (any space that can surround the radar) to determine whether it meets the product specifications.

 

Process:

 

LakiBeam 1 ToF LiDAR Angle Testing

Result:

When the resolution is 0.25°, the angle of the upper point cloud is 45.5 degrees, the angle of the lower point cloud is 315.5 degrees, and the radar angle can be calculated as 270 degrees.

LakiBeam 1 ToF LiDAR

Item 2: Radar Performance Testing

Anti-Strong-Light Test

 

Purpose:

In the practical operation of radar based on optical principles, light interference is an essential factor that affects the radar's performance. The purpose of this test is to evaluate the radar's ability to resist light interference.

 

Method:

Under a given strong light environment, record the return parameters of the laser radar, and compare them with the actual data to determine if the radar is affected by strong light.

 

Process:

Place the laser radar at a fixed point, with a white wall 1 meter away as the target object. Place the strong light lamp 30cm away from the radar, use a lumen meter to measure the intensity of light received by the radar, and check the point cloud data on the upper computer.

LakiBeam 1 ToF LiDAR
LakiBeam 1 ToF LiDAR

Turn on the computer host and record the relevant data.

LakiBeam 1 ToF LiDAR

Result:

The radar can still output point clouds normally under strong light of 1400 lux.


 

Object Testing

 

Purpose:

Among the many performance indicators of a LiDAR, point cloud quality is of utmost importance. In scenes with different materials and reflectivity such as flat and curved objects, glass, etc. Let's take a look at the practical performance of LakiBeam1 point cloud.

 

Method:

For the given objects with different shapes, record the LiDAR point cloud and compare it with the actual object.

 

Process:

1.Black and white objects

LakiBeam 1 ToF LiDAR

 

Turn on the computer host and record the relevant data.​

LakiBeam 1 ToF LiDAR

 

2.Curved objects

Place the LiDAR in front of a white flower pot with a curved surface.

LakiBeam 1 ToF LiDAR

 

Turn on the computer host and record the relevant data.

LakiBeam 1 ToF LiDAR

 

3.Glass

Place the LiDAR at a fixed point 0.48m away from the glass.

LakiBeam 1 ToF LiDAR

 

Turn on the computer host and record the relevant data.​

LakiBeam 1 ToF LiDAR

 

Place the LiDAR at a fixed point 2m away from the glass.

LakiBeam 1 ToF LiDAR

 

Turn on the computer host and record the relevant data.

Result:

Black and white objects and curved objects can both provide point cloud data that conforms to the shape. Glass data tested at close range has trailing effects, while data obtained from far distances are more accurate.

 

Power Consumption Testing

Purpose:

To measure the power consumption of the LiDAR during operation, evaluate its power efficiency and energy utilization. In practical application scenarios, power consumption determines the power consumption of the LiDAR.
Specifications:
Working voltage range: 9V-32V
Power consumption: ≤2W

 

Method:

Use a laboratory power supply to power the LiDAR and measure the working current of the LiDAR to calculate power consumption.

Process:

 

Result:​

LakiBeam 1 ToF LiDAR

 

At maximum voltage, the output power is less than 2W and power consumption is low.

 

Noise Testing

Purpose:

Mechanical rotation of the LiDAR will produce certain noise interference. The purpose of this test is to observe whether there is any abnormal sound during the operation of the LiDAR.

 

Method:

Attach a decibel meter closely to the LiDAR in a quiet indoor environment and record the decibel data of the LiDAR during normal operation for 5 minutes.

 

Process:

LakiBeam 1 ToF LiDAR

 

Result:

The decibel meter test showed that there were no abnormalities during normal operation of the LiDAR, and the decibel level remained around 45. (Actual decibel data may be higher, influenced by computer operation)


 

Blind Spot Testing

Purpose:

The blind spot, as the name suggests, is the distance where the LiDAR can not receive the laser echo signal. It is outside the visible range and is an important performance parameter of LiDAR. (Specification: no blind spot)

 

Method:

Observe point cloud data by covering the LiDAR with an obstructing object from outside the LiDAR.

 

Process:

Cover the LiDAR with a semi-circular cover that fits the LiDAR.

LakiBeam 1 ToF LiDAR

 

Turn on the computer host and record the relevant data.​

 

LakiBeam 1 ToF LiDAR

 

Result:

The radar has no blind spots.


 

Weight test

Purpose:

Compact and lightweight is the best product form for the radar. The purpose of this test is to determine whether it meets the product specifications (weight: 160g).

 

Method:

The dimensions and weight of the naked machine and accessories are measured using a ruler and electronic digital scale.

Process:

 

Result:

The naked machine weighs 196.5g


 

Aging Test

Purpose:

As a mechanical rotating LiDAR, the purpose is to test whether the LiDAR will heat up or have abnormal data after long-term use, and whether it will affect LiDAR's performance.

 

Method:

Keep LiDAR in a working state for a long time to test whether it will have abnormalities under long-term operation.

 

Process:

Observe the various parameter data on LiDAR's built-in point cloud software at regular intervals.

LakiBeam 1 ToF LiDAR

Result:

 

After 49 hours of aging, the radar still operates normally and all parameters are normal.
 

Item 3:SDK testing

Purpose:

To test the effectiveness of the radar using ROS/SDK and confirm whether the product information can be used normally.

 

Method:

Run on Windows/Ubuntu OS.

 

Process:

Scene:

LakiBeam 1 ToF LiDAR

 

Data:

LakiBeam 1 ToF LiDAR

Result:

Clear maps, distinct contours, and smooth boundaries.

Angle Testing

 

Purpose:

Angle is an essential parameter for LiDAR, indicating the scanning range of the radar and helping us determine the direction and position of the target. (Specification: 270°)

 

Method:

Test the angle range and angle resolution of the LiDAR in an enclosed space (any space that can surround the radar) to determine whether it meets the product specifications.

 

Process:

 

LakiBeam 1 ToF LiDAR

Result:

When the resolution is 0.25°, the angle of the upper point cloud is 45.5 degrees, the angle of the lower point cloud is 315.5 degrees, and the radar angle can be calculated as 270 degrees.

LakiBeam 1 ToF LiDAR

Item 2: Radar Performance Testing

 

Anti-Strong-Light Test

 

Purpose:

In the practical operation of radar based on optical principles, light interference is an essential factor that affects the radar's performance. The purpose of this test is to evaluate the radar's ability to resist light interference.

 

Method:

Under a given strong light environment, record the return parameters of the laser radar, and compare them with the actual data to determine if the radar is affected by strong light.

 

Process:

Place the laser radar at a fixed point, with a white wall 1 meter away as the target object. Place the strong light lamp 30cm away from the radar, use a lumen meter to measure the intensity of light received by the radar, and check the point cloud data on the upper computer.

LakiBeam 1 ToF LiDAR
LakiBeam 1 ToF LiDAR

Turn on the computer host and record the relevant data.

LakiBeam 1 ToF LiDAR

Result:

The radar can still output point clouds normally under strong light of 1400 lux.


 

Object Testing

Purpose:

Among the many performance indicators of a LiDAR, point cloud quality is of utmost importance. In scenes with different materials and reflectivity such as flat and curved objects, glass, etc. Let's take a look at the practical performance of LakiBeam1 point cloud.

 

Method:

For the given objects with different shapes, record the LiDAR point cloud and compare it with the actual object.

 

Process:

1.Black and white objects

 

Turn on the computer host and record the relevant data.​

 

 

2.Curved objects

Place the LiDAR in front of a white flower pot with a curved surface.

 

 

Turn on the computer host and record the relevant data.

 

 

3.Glass

Place the LiDAR at a fixed point 0.48m away from the glass.

 

 

Turn on the computer host and record the relevant data.​

 

 

Place the LiDAR at a fixed point 2m away from the glass.

 

 

Turn on the computer host and record the relevant data.

 

Result:

Black and white objects and curved objects can both provide point cloud data that conforms to the shape. Glass data tested at close range has trailing effects, while data obtained from far distances are more accurate.

 

Power Consumption Testing

Purpose:

To measure the power consumption of the LiDAR during operation, evaluate its power efficiency and energy utilization. In practical application scenarios, power consumption determines the power consumption of the LiDAR.
Specifications:
Working voltage range: 9V-32V
Power consumption: ≤2W

 

Method:

Use a laboratory power supply to power the LiDAR and measure the working current of the LiDAR to calculate power consumption.

Process:

 

 

Result:​

 

At maximum voltage, the output power is less than 2W and power consumption is low.

 

Noise Testing

Purpose:

Mechanical rotation of the LiDAR will produce certain noise interference. The purpose of this test is to observe whether there is any abnormal sound during the operation of the LiDAR.

 

Method:

Attach a decibel meter closely to the LiDAR in a quiet indoor environment and record the decibel data of the LiDAR during normal operation for 5 minutes.

 

Process:

 

Result:

The decibel meter test showed that there were no abnormalities during normal operation of the LiDAR, and the decibel level remained around 45. (Actual decibel data may be higher, influenced by computer operation)


 

Blind Spot Testing

Purpose:

The blind spot, as the name suggests, is the distance where the LiDAR can not receive the laser echo signal. It is outside the visible range and is an important performance parameter of LiDAR. (Specification: no blind spot)

 

Method:

Observe point cloud data by covering the LiDAR with an obstructing object from outside the LiDAR.

 

Process:

Cover the LiDAR with a semi-circular cover that fits the LiDAR.

 

Turn on the computer host and record the relevant data.​

 

 

Result:

The radar has no blind spots.


 

Weight test

Purpose:

Compact and lightweight is the best product form for the radar. The purpose of this test is to determine whether it meets the product specifications (weight: 160g).

 

Method:

The dimensions and weight of the naked machine and accessories are measured using a ruler and electronic digital scale.


 

Process:

 

 

Result:

The naked machine weighs 196.5g


 

Aging Test

Purpose:

As a mechanical rotating LiDAR, the purpose is to test whether the LiDAR will heat up or have abnormal data after long-term use, and whether it will affect LiDAR's performance.

 

Method:

Keep LiDAR in a working state for a long time to test whether it will have abnormalities under long-term operation.

 

Process:

Observe the various parameter data on LiDAR's built-in point cloud software at regular intervals.

 

Result:

 

 

After 49 hours of aging, the radar still operates normally and all parameters are normal.
 

Item 3:SDK testing

Purpose:

To test the effectiveness of the radar using ROS/SDK and confirm whether the product information can be used normally.

 

Method:

Run on Windows/Ubuntu OS.


 

Process:

Scene:

 

 

Data:

 

Result:

Clear maps, distinct contours, and smooth boundaries.

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